This report describes the first droplet temperature measurements carried out a small IWT at the Technical University of Braunschweig (TUBS) for small and large droplets, under Appendix C conditions. Additionally, the preliminary computational work carried out at TU Braunschweig to estimate the droplet temperature in the icing wind tunnel will be summarized in this report. The influence of the injection temperature, injection velocity and spray bar axial position are studied, to estimate droplet velocities and temperatures for different size distributions for supercooled droplets in the IWT test section. Furthermore, the preliminary temperature measurements of large droplets under FZDZ conditions inside RTA’s large IWT are evaluated.
Over the course of one week, the droplet temperatures have been successfully measured in the icing wind tunnel at TUBS. Real time measurements have been realized under adjustment of IWT settings in order to vary spray parameters such as: MVD, LWC, air temperature and velocity. The results show that the droplet temperature is a complex function of all these parameters. The measurements have been essentially focused on droplets with a MVD between 20 μm and 60 μm, permitting comparisons with numerical simulations. Moreover, some measurements have been carried out for SLD with MVD larger than 100 μm.
FZDZ studies, which have been performed during a two-day measurement period at RTA, IWT (Vienna, Austria) have been strongly perturbated by water condensation on the GRT recording lens. Nevertheless, measurements have been successfully carried out for one case.

Within the European ICE-GENESIS project, the deliverable D5.3 is closely related to Task 5.2 of work package WP5. This task is dedicated to instrumentation assessment and selection for IWT calibration, in particular:

a) State of the art and discussion of the specification of the needs for IWT snow measurements
b) Review of the available instrumentation for artificial snow particle properties and bulk snow water content measurements (ground-based instrumentation, particularly adapted for use in wind tunnels), and also snow cloud homogeneity (e.g. laser sheet).
c) Selection of most suitable calibrated instrumentation for IWT calibration.

The Deliverable D4.2 of the European ICE GENESIS project deals with the “review, assessment and selection of instrumentation for LWC”. It is closely related to Task 4.2 of the work package 4. This task is dedicated to the review and selection of the most appropriate instrumentation for measurements of the liquid water content (LWC) under Appendix C and O conditions in wind tunnel (W/T) facilities.

Within the European ICE GENESIS project, the deliverable D4.1 is closely related to Task 4.1 of work package 4 (“Instrumentation for liquid icing conditions”). This task is dedicated to the review and the selection of the most appropriate instrumentation for measurement of the particle size distribution (PSD) under Appendix O conditions in various wind tunnel (W/T) facilities. The SLD measurements requirements are extracted from FAR/CS-25 Appendix C & O (FAA, 2014).

The intent of the present specification is to give a structure applicable to any tool to be developed to
predict ice and snow accretion, even out of the scope of ICE GENESIS. It is based on the specifications
initiated in HAIC and STORM projects and complements the deliverable DEL3.4 which provides
requirements for liquid icing conditions.

Overall, the top level objective of the ICE GENESIS project is to provide the European aeronautical industry with a validated new generation of 3D icing engineering tools (numerical simulation and test capabilities), for safe, efficient, and cost effective design and certification of future aircraft and rotorcraft. Besides Appendix C & O, this top level objective is also addressing snow conditions.

Mathematical models have been developed to describe Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) or Snow behaviour and features such as follows:
• Splashing, bouncing, and re-emission phenomena for SLD (WP9 activities)
• Drag, melting, sticking, or erosion for snow (WP10 activities).

Also, automatic 3D remeshing processes have been developed in the work package 9.
Its outcomes have been tested in the work package 11. The activities were split into 3 parts:
• Task 11.1: Validation of App C numerical capability in industrial environment
• Task 11.2: Validation of App O numerical capability in industrial environment
• Task 11.3: Validation of Snow numerical capability in industrial environment

The scope of this deliverable is to provide a summary of the improvements performed by facilities during the first part of the program to achieve the capability to generate SLD cloud conditions focused on the Freezing Drizzle (FZDZ) envelope in compliance with FAA 14 CFR Part 25 and EASA CS-25 Appendix O.

Deliverable D6.1 / D6.2 provides information on the calibration method for Appendix O Freezing Drizzle and Freezing Rain cloud conditions in Icing Wind Tunnels. Recommended instrumentation for the different parameters as well as applicable procedures are described in order to assist the calibration. The document is structured in a similar way to the Aerospace Recommended Practice SAE ARP5905, “Calibration and Acceptance of Icing Wind Tunnels”, which is used for calibration of Appendix C icing clouds [1]. This deliverable aims to act as additional input for the SAE AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Committee for IWTs working on the document SAE AIR6241 SLD capabilities of icing wind tunnels were commonly accepted procedures for the experimental simulation of Supercooled Large Drop (SLD) conditions in icing wind tunnels along with measurement techniques suitable to obtain calibration of the SLD icing cloud will be summarised.

This deliverable provides the results from the measurements and calibration activities performed in the RTA Icing Wind Tunnel (IWT) for Freezing Rain (FZRA) cloud conditions and a summary of the measurements at CIRA-IWT, showing a potential capability for FZRA cloud generation.

The Deliverable D10.4 summarizes the activities conducted within the WP10 of the ICE-GENESIS project related to the snow numerical capabilities. Further details on the activities are given in the Deliverables D10.1 [1], D10.2 [2], D10.3 [3], including the description of the experimental, modelling and numerical activities. It is noteworthy to mention that these activities are tightly associated to those of the WP5 “Instrumentation for snow and microphysical properties” and WP7 “Snow test capability“ and have led to a fruitful collaboration with the partners involved in these WPs.

This report summarizes the main achievements of WP9. The third chapter describes liquid drop impact activities, including the description of the drop deformation prior to impact, the regimes of the drop impact, the mass deposition, the ice accretion, the secondary droplets. It concludes with a description of the dendritically frozen drop impact. For each subtopic, a brief summary of the experimental and modelling/numerical activities is provided when relevant. The fourth chapter deals with the roughness characterization with, once again, a presentation of some salient experimental observations followed by the description of the model developed during the ICE-GENESIS project. Chapter 5 is related to the liquid film runback topics which, as previously mentioned, has been deeply impacted by the termination of the partnership with the Russians participants. Finally, presentations of the numerical methods implemented in the 3D numerical tools of the partners and previously mentioned are described in Chapter 6. Furthermore, the chapter also presents the assessment of the physical models derived in Task 9.2 and of the numerical methods of Task 9.3 on several test cases. It led to a TRL4 Review assessed conclusive held in December 2022 under the lead of CIRA.

ICE GENESIS enabled significant progress on wind tunnel test facilities for the simulation of SLD and Snow conditions. The project also led to an improved understanding and modelling of SLD and Snow physics, though some progress remains necessary on the new models in order to use them as certification means of compliance. All along the project, the international cooperation has been beneficial and is to be continued.

Further efforts are necessary to achieve workable means of compliance for the future generation of disruptive products. They could take the shape of collaborative research activities feeding two separate roadmaps focusing respectively on supercooled large drops and snow & ice crystals. Launching the necessary activities to achieve the targets of these roadmaps will be critical to enable the development and certification of low-CO2 aircraft and engines. Some coordination efforts are currently ongoing at international level to define in more details the scope of the required future activities and to identify the best funding opportunities in the coming years.

The current document describes calibration methodology for snow test facilities. It has been derived from the SAE ARP 5905. In particular, relevant parameters and acceptance criteria for snow cloud calibration have been updated. The basic procedure remains unchanged including particle size distribution, particle characteristics, water content and cloud uniformity measurements but the instrumentation and techniques to be used for the calibration of snow conditions change. The characteristics of this new instrumentation are further detailed in this document. Finally, a continuity check test is introduced as main acceptance criteria by testing a model (simple configuration e.g. NACA airfoil) to demonstrate the ability of the test facilities to reproduce snow accretion phenomena, to allow an inter-comparison of the test facilities or/and to assess the impact of any change in the test facility configuration.

This document could be the baseline for a future update of the SAE ARP5905 “Calibration and Acceptance of Icing Wind Tunnels”.

The current document provides the technical requirements for falling and blowing snow conditions to be reproduced in ground wind tunnel facilities. These requirements intend to cover all the different parts of the rotorcraft and aircraft affected by snow with a focus on power plant system.

This document will be also a guideline for test facilities development and will help the different partners within WP7 to define improvements and upgrades of the tests rigs as well as procedures and controls to achieve as much as possible a good reproduction of falling and blowing snow conditions.

3D scanning has established itself as new method to document the final ice accretion on test objects (e.g. components or systems of aircraft, helicopter, and UAV) after icing wind tunnel test runs. The final ice shapes are quite complex and can differ significantly in their size and appearance because the icing process is influenced by many variables. To better understand the icing process and the impact of the final ice accretion on the flight characteristics of the respective aircraft, an accurate 3D scan is of importance. Nevertheless, special software tools are also required to process and evaluate the generated 3D data to investigate the parameters of interest, e.g. ice thickness and ice surface roughness.

This report provides an overview and summarizes the activities performed at the Austrian Institute for Icing Sciences (AIIS) as part of WP4 in the ICE GENESIS project.

Within the European ICE-GENESIS project, the Russian aircraft-laboratory Yak-42D “Roshydromet” and the French ATR42 research aircraft from SAFIRE will perform 2 flight test campaigns out of France and Russia representing a total of 75 flight hours. 

The work performed in order to produce the deliverable D5.1 is entirely related to the choice of most suitable instrumentation for snow microphysics research on above research aircraft, which means we have to take into account payload possibilities, installation constraints, and certification limitations. The work beyond D5.1 to be undertaken subsequently will be to design the flight plans, conduct the two field campaigns and process the observations of basic aircraft, in situ microphysics, and radar observations.

Detailed report presenting an exhaustive literature review on the existing models, numerical techniques and experimental data that are currently available for the development of 3D numerical tools for App C and O. Then requirements will be defined in terms of basic tests to be performed in WP9, model features, model accuracy, numerical techniques to be used, interface with existing industrial tools, and validation procedure.

Detailed report describing the icing conditions and A/C operating envelopes needeed to be investigated to support design validation and certification in App. O conditions and defining  the operating envelope of IWT, the characteristics of instrumentation to be used for measurements and the relevant parameters to be investigated in order to be able to define an experimental envelope being compliant with requirements.

The ICE GENESIS Public web site is part of the Dissemination and Communication strategy of the project. Consequently, its design, realisation and updates have been assigned to WP2 – Dissemination and Exploitation led by ARTTIC.

The current document describes how the site has been designed and realised and provides an overview of the existing pages and their content, which has been approved by the partners of the consortium. The website will be updated continuously especially the sections on publications and news and events during the project and remain accessible after the end of the project.


The ICE GENESIS Communication Kit is part of the Dissemination and Communication strategy of the project. Consequently, its design, realisation and updates have been assigned to WP2 – Dissemination and Exploitation led by ARTTIC.

New materials will be generated along the course of the project upon request for the several dissemination events to come.

Project Partners