This deliverable constitutes the final report of the WP9 of the ICE-GENESIS project. It is a Public report describing the main realizations and achievements performed by the WP9 partners: CIRA, CU, ONERA, POLIMI, POLYMO, TUBS, TUDA and TUS. Participation of two Russian partners, TsAGI and MIPT, was originally planned, but cancelled due to the geopolitical situation.
The main objective of WP9 was to improve and validate existing 3D numerical tools to predict ice accretion in App C, App O conditions in accordance with the first general objective of ICE-GENESIS [1]. To reach such a goal, the WP has been split into the four following Tasks:

− Task 9.1 - Basic experiments to provide missing data for model development;
− Task 9.2 - Models improvement and implementation in 2D tools for calibration and preliminary validation;
− Task 9.3 - Models integration in 3D numerical tools & preliminary validation;
− Task 9.4 - Improvement of 3D ice accretion numerical methodologies.

The first two Tasks are tightly associated with the realization in Task 9.1 of some experiments, at the academic level or with a limited complexity, on one hand, and the development of some physical models in Task 9.2 based partially on these experiments on the other hand. Three main topics had been identified, namely drop impact, roughness characterization and liquid film runback. These Tasks conducted to two TRL Reviews, one in June 2022 on the drop impact led by ONERA (TRL3 level), and one on the roughness characterization in July 2022, led by TUBS (TRL2 level). Task 9.4 has been devoted to the development of several numerical methods in the 3D numerical tools to account for the ice deposit on the obstacle surfaces. Such a capability is mandatory to perform Predictor-Corrector or Multi-Step calculations. It has led to a TRL3 Review in July 2022 under the supervision of POLIMI. Finally, Task 9.3 has enabled to assess the SLD models developed in Task 9.2 and the numerical methods proposed in Task 9.3 on 3D test cases. It led to a TRL4 Review Gate led by CIRA in December 2022. Since then, the 3D numerical tools (CIRA, ONERA, POLIMI) have been provided to the industrial partners as well as some technical support to achieve the WP11 objectives.

The main achievements and results are described in three Deliverables [2], [3] and [4] while the experimental data were available on demand to the ICE-GENESIS participants. Besides, TUBS data on HMDI airfoil can be found in the ICE-GENESIS database handled by AIIS.

This report summarizes the main achievements of WP9. The third chapter describes liquid drop impact activities, including the description of the drop deformation prior to impact, the regimes of the drop impact, the mass deposition, the ice accretion, the secondary droplets. It concludes with a description of the dendritically frozen drop impact. For each subtopic, a brief summary of the experimental and modelling/numerical activities is provided when relevant. The fourth chapter deals with the roughness characterization with, once again, a presentation of some salient experimental observations followed by the description of the model developed during the ICE-GENESIS project. Chapter 5 is related to the liquid film runback topics which, as previously mentioned, has been deeply impacted by the termination of the partnership with the Russians participants. Finally, presentations of the numerical methods implemented in the 3D numerical tools of the partners and previously mentioned are described in Chapter 6. Furthermore, the chapter also presents the assessment of the physical models derived in Task 9.2 and of the numerical methods of Task 9.3 on several test cases. It led to a TRL4 Review assessed conclusive held in December 2022 under the lead of CIRA.

Project Partners